Is the gambling motives questionnaire really three-dimensional?: A proposition of a four-dimensional gambling motives questionnaire – Revised

Abstract

The aim of the present study was to improve the weaknesses of the three-dimensional Gambling Motives Questionnaire and to examine the psychometric properties and factor structure of the Gambling Motives Questionnaire-Revised. The Gambling Motives Questionnaire was administered to a sample of 418 gamblers (92% men, mean age 19.5 years). Participants completed the Gambling Motives Questionnaire and an additional item tapping boredom, as well as a variety of measures of gambling behavior and gambling problems as criterion measures. Results showed that the Gambling Motives Questionnaire-Revised is better represented as a four-factor structure tapping the following four gambling motives factors; enhancement, coping, social, and self-gratification, Δχ2 Δ(df) = 24.76 (3), p < 0.001. Removing two problematic items from the Gambling Motives Questionnaire and adding an extra item tapping boredom also improved the fit of the Gambling Motives Questionnaire-Revised. The subscales enhancement, social, and coping were all significant predictors of variety of gambling behaviors (p < 0.05), whereas enhancement, coping, and self-gratification predicted frequency of gambling behaviors (p < 0.01). Coping and self-gratification predicted loss of control (p < 0.01), whereas self-gratification predicted gambling problems (p < 0.001). The Gambling Motives Questionnaire – Revised, consisting of the four dimensions enhancement motives, social motives, coping motives and self-gratification motives, is a reliable and valid instrument to measuring gambling motives.

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