In this article it is argued that knowing more about non-gamblers could help researchers discover novel protective factors against problem gambling. The purpose of this study was to therefore to identify the sociodemographic, psychological and behavioural characteristics that are more prevalent among non-gamblers than among gamblers. Results from a logistic regression analysis with a representative sample of adults in the province of Quebec (Canada) revealed 12 significant predictors of non-gambling status. Among these predictors, seven were sociodemographic variables (i.e. birthplace, mother tongue, childhood religion, civil status, education, family income and family history of gambling problems), four were psychological variables (i.e. perception of one's financial situation relative to others, optimism concerning one's financial situation, beliefs concerning chances of winning, and suicidal ideation) and one variable was behavioural (i.e. church attendance). Further research including different types of variables and a common operational definition of non-gamblers is necessary to better understand this subgroup and its potential for possessing protective factors against gambling problems.