AIM: To provide a solid evidence base to strengthen the understanding of the impact of gambling on children. METHOD: Literature review. FINDINGS: A high proportion of children and young people gamble. When compared to adults, a significantly higher proportion of children and young people are either problem gamblers or at risk of becoming problem gamblers. Whilst accessibility to gambling opportunities appears to be linked to participation, attempts by regulatory means to restrict access can only be at best partially successful because young people find ways around them, including help from their parents. The research highlights the potential usefulness of a public health model (incorporating prevention, education and harm reduction) when tackling gambling by children and young people. This is an area where Great Britain appears to be less developed than other jurisdictions. There are a number of gaps in the research evidence. CONCLUSIONS: Further research should include explore parental attitudes towards underage gambling.