Toward a syndrome model of addiction: Multiple expressions, common etiology

Abstract

Argues that recent evidence supports a broad view of addiction, encompassing not only substances but also excessive behaviours. Suggests that evidence of multiple and interacting biopsychosocial antecedents, manifestations, and consequents--within and among behavioural and substance-related patterns of excess--reflects an underlying addiction syndrome. Describes a new, syndromal model of addiction, reviews the most recent literature that supports viewing addiction as a syndrome, and indicates how this perspective can advance clinical practice and identify areas in which more research is needed. For that purpose, reviews the empirical evidence for this addiction syndrome and organises it into three primary areas: (1) shared neurobiological antecedents, (2) shared psychosocial antecedents, and (3) shared experiences.

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