While many elect to recover from addictive disorders on their own, others choose clinical care. Treatment can occur in a variety of settings and represents an array of clinical modalities. A combination of modalities, such as pharmacologic and psychosocial interventions, yields the most favorable treatment outcomes. Nonspecific treatment factors (eg, empathy and countertransference) also considerably influence treatment outcomes. The treatment process is enhanced when clinicians match clinical interventions with patients' motivation for change and their stage of addiction or recovery. More research is needed to elucidate the effects of different treatment interventions on longterm outcomes.