The National Opinion Research Center DSM Screen for Gambling Problems (NODS), a population-based telephone-screening tool to identify gambling problems according to DSM-IV criteria, was examined as a potential outcome measure for gambling treatment studies. The NODS was administered to problem gamblers as part of a 1-year follow-up after a brief treatment. Internal reliability was fair to good and the factor structure and item-total correlations supported the existence of a single construct with three subfactors, measuring negative behavioral consequences, preoccupation and impaired control over gambling and tolerance, and withdrawal and relief gambling. The NODS total score correlated moderately with gambling behavior and outcome as predicted. The total score also correlated highly with the total score of the South Oaks Gambling Screen (SOGS) although the NODS and SOGS categorization of nonproblem, problem, and pathological gamblers showed poor agreement. The NODS, as designed, provided a more strict definition of disordered gambling than the SOGS. In summary, the NODS shows promise as an outcome measure of gambling problems.