GambleAware research

GambleAware is committed to delivering an independently commissioned research programme that focuses on gambling behaviour and the effectiveness of various treatment, prevention and education strategies in minimising gambling-related harm. All research published by GambleAware can be found on this page.

Responsible gambling industry initiatives: Phase 1
GambleAware commissioned Revealing Reality to identify good responsible gambling practice and inspire change across the gambling industry. The overall aim of the responsible gambling industry initiatives programme of research is to enhance industry social responsibility practices, where a cooperative approach across operators would be beneficial.
Responsible gambling industry initiatives - phase 1
Annexes 1-8
Annex 9 & Annex 10

Remote gambling research: Phase 2
GambleAware commissioned PwC and the Responsible Gambling Council (Canada) to explore whether practical behavioual markers of problem gambling in a remote context can be identified from data operators have access to.
The overall aim of the programme of research, building on the gaming machines research of 2014, is to explore the potential usefulness of industry-held data and behavioural analytics in the remote gambling sector, primarily to indicate markers and patterns of harmful or risky behaviour, and then to recommend best ways to mitigate against such risks and harms.
Remote Gambling Research: Interim Report on Phase 2
The first phase of this research is here: Remote gambling research: Interim report Phase 1.

Rapid reviews
GambleAware commissions its Independent Research Review Group (previously Independent Research Oversight Group) to produce brief reports on topics of interest. These reports were produced by Professor Alexander Blaszczynski and Dr Sally Gainsbury at The University of Sydney.
Consideration of the impact of immediate calls to action within gambling advertising
Tipping point: When public opinion triggers changes to policy
Live odds in-sports betting and time limited special offers
Skins betting and blockchain: A brief overview

A scoping investigation of eye-tracking in Electronic Gaming Machine play
This is the first study to use eye-tracking to improve our understanding of how machine players pay attention to roulette and slot games in commercial settings. The study describes the distribution of visual attention towards the game features of roulette and slots, and offers methodology for studying and optimizing the timing, placement and content of harm-minimisation messaging.
The research was conducted by Professor Robert Rogers and colleagues at Bangor University.
A scoping investigation of eye-tracking in Electronic Gaming Machine play

Evaluation of the Multi-Operator Self-Exclusion Scheme for bookmakers
At the request of The Senet Group, GambleAware commissioned Chrysalis Research to conduct an independent evaluation of the Multi-Operator Self-Exclusion Scheme. Senet took over the operation of MOSES in the autumn of 2016 and wanted to understand its effectiveness and identify opportunities for improvement.
Evaluation of the Multi-Operator Self-Exclusion Scheme (for Retail Bookmakers)
Note: The Gambling Commission has encouraged all sectors to conduct evaluations of their self-exclusion schemes and is developing guidelines to standardise the approach; this evaluation precedes that advice so we expect it will be repeated on a consistent basis alongside the schemes for casinos, bingo, arcades and, once it is live at the end of 2017, the online sector.

FOB-Ts in British betting shops: Further analysis of machine data to examine the impact of the £50 Regulations
Analysis of machine data to examine the impact of the £50 regulations in bookmakers.
This research was requested by the Responsible Gambling Strategy Board, and conducted by Professor Ian McHale, University of Salford & Professor David Forrest, University of Liverpool.
FOB-Ts in British betting shops: Further analysis of machine data

Follow-up study of loyalty card customers: Changes in gambling behaviour over time
GambleAware has published a follow-up study of loyalty card holders that adds new information to our knowedge of problems associated with machines gambling.
The study was conducted by NatCen and Dr Heather Wardle.
Follow-up study of loyalty card customers

Cards on the table: The cost to government of problem gambling in Britain
The true cost of problem gambling is revealed in a report commissioned by GambleAware. The study, completed by the Institute of Public Policy Research, estimates that problem gamblers cost the government between £260 million and £1.2 billion per year.
Cards on the table: The cost to government of problem gambling in Great Britain

Key issues in Product Based Harm-Minimisation
GambleAware has published an authoritative overview of the international evidence relating to product-based harm-minimisation which offers a critical examination of relevant policy issues.
The reports authors are Professor Jonathan Parke, Sophro; Dr Adrian Parke, University of Lincoln; and Professor Alex Blaszczynski, University of Sydney.
Key issues in Product Based Harm-Minimisation

Evaluation of the player awareness system implementation
RGT has published a study by PwC that independently evaluates the Association of British Bookmaker's “Player Awareness System” for gaming machines in licensed betting offices.
Evaluation of player awareness system implementation

Bingo research: Problem gambling in licensed bingo premises
RGT commissioned Ipsos MORI and Heather Wardle to “identify the nature and extent of ‘problem gambling’ behaviour in licensed bingo clubs in Great Britain.” 1,448 telephone interviews were undertaken with patrons who attend licensed bingo clubs at least monthly. The response rate was 42% and fieldwork took place between 18-21 February and 7-26 March 2016.
Bingo research: Problem gambling in licensed bingo premises

Tracked play on B1 gaming machines in British casinos
RGT has published research that reviewed loyalty card data from more than 5 million casino visits made by more than 855,000 visitors between 2012 and 2014, revealing patterns of gaming machine player behaviour in casinos. The report is linked to the suite of research, commissioned by RGT, which examines issues related to the use of gaming machines in Great Britain.
Tracked play on B1 gaming machines in British casinos

Children and young people's gambling: Research review
RGT has published a research review into children and young people's gambling by Professor Gill Valentine at the University of Sheffield. This is an update of a review commissioned and published by the Gambling Commission in 2008.
Children and young people's gambling: Research review

Remote gambling research
RGT has published an initial report by PwC and the Responsible Gambling Council summarising the first phase of their project to explore the potential usefulness of industry-held data and behavioural analytics in the remote gambling sector, primarily to indicate markers and patterns of harmful or risky behaviour, and then to recommend best ways to mitigate such risks and harms. This interim report synthesises the latest thinking on harm from problematic behaviour through a literature review and consultation with leading remote gambling operators, and then recommends and approach for Phase 2 which will involve analysis of industry data and a customer survey. Phase 3 will develop and test a set of interventions to target at-risk individuals.
Remote gambling research: Interim report on Phase 1

Secondary Analysis into B2 and B3 gaming machines
RGT published three further reports on 24 May 2016 in relation to its programme of research into Category B gaming machines. Using data supplied by the industry in 2014, independent researchers were asked to answer 8 further questions posed by the Responsible Gambling Strategy Board.
(NB Regulatory changes affecting B2 stakes of £50 or more have been introduced since this data was provided)
People who play machines in bookmakers: secondary analysis of loyalty card survey data
Author: Heather Wardle
Examining the effect of proximity and concentration of B2 machines to gambling play
Authors: Gaynor Astbury & Heather Wardle
Secondary Analysis of Machines Data
Authors: David Excell & Piotr Grudzien

Two summaries of the research are also available:
NatCen and Geofutures summary
Featurespace summary

Gambling and social media 
RGT has published a report by think-tank Demos studying the link between online communities and gambling.
Gambling and Social Media

Evaluating the impact of the uplift of stakes and prizes on B1 gaming machines in casinos
RGT has published an evaluation of the impact of regulatory changes to stakes and prize limits on gaming machines in casinos. The authors are David Forrest, Ian G. McHale and Heather Wardle.
Evaluating the impact of the uplift of stakes and prizes on B1 gaming machines in casinos

Initial impact assessment of ABB Code
RGT has published an independent assessment by NatCen Social Research of the Association of British Bookmakers' (ABB) 'Code for Responsible Gambling and Player Protection'. The assessment was commissioned by RGT and looks at the initial impact of the ABB Code and recommends a future evaluation model to ensure the ABB Code continues to be relevant to the needs of betting shop staff and customers.
ABB Code for Responsible Gambling and Player Protection: Evaluation of early impact among machine gamblers
Developing a logic model for the ABB Code for Responsible Gambling and Player Protection

A spatial investigation into bookmakers using industry data
RGT has published geographic analysis of the location of licensed betting offices (LBOs) with gaming machines. The research places machine play in a geographic context and details the populations LBOs typically serve. The independent analysis was conducted by Geofutures and commissioned by RGT. It forms part of the programme of research requested by the government, the gambling regulator and the industry to help inform policy decisions into gaming machines located in bookmakers. The research utilised studies conducted by NatCen Social Research and Featurespace, and published by the RGT in December 2014.
A spatial investigation into bookmakers using industry data

Category 2 Gaming Machines located in British Bookmakers
RGT published seven reports on 1 December 2014 in relation to its programme of research into Category B gaming machines.The full suite of reports is as follows (please click on each report to download separately):
Report 1: Theoretical markers of harm for machine play in a bookmaker's. A rapid scoping review.
Authors: Heather Wardle, Jonathan Parke and David Excell
Report 2: Identifying problem gambling - findings from a survey of loyalty card customers.
Authors: Heather Wardle, David Excell, Eleanor Ireland, Nevena Ilic and Stephen Sharman
Report 3: Predicting problem gamblers: Analysis of industry data
Authors: David Excell, Georgiy Bobashev, Heather Wardle, Daniel Gonzalez-Ordonez, Tom Whitehead, Robert J. Morris, Paul Ruddle
Patterns of play: analysis of data from machines in bookmakers
Update 19/9/16: A revised version of this report has been published with changes made to Table B.7. In the previous version, because of the way some bets were recorded, it looked like the maximum stakes people had placed was £200. This is an oddity about how the system stores and records bets related to bonuses and the authors have excluded these cases from the analysis in this version. Versions of the report as previously published are available on request.
Update 14/9/16: The authors have informed RGT of a suspected calculation error affecting some figures in this report, which will be corrected as soon as possible. The authors do not expect the corrections to alter the conclusions. If necessary a revised report will be published once available with changes clearly marked.
Authors: Heather Wardle, Eleanor Ireland, Stephen Sharman, David Excell and Daniel Gonzalez-Ordonez
The role of stake size in loss of control in within-session gambling.
Authors: Adrian Parke, Andrew Harris, Jonathan Parke and Paul Goddard
Understanding of Return to Player messages: Findings from user testing.
Authors: Debbie Collins, Sophie Green, Jo d'Ardenne , Heather Wardle & Shauna-Kaye
Changes in machine gambling behaviour. Headline findings from a follow-up study of participants to the Health Survey for England 2012, Scottish Health Survey 2012 and the British Gambling Prevalence Survey 2010.
Authors: Heather Wardle & Dan Philo

Self-Exclusion as a Gambling Harm Minimisation Measure in Great Britain: An Overview of the Academic Evidence and Perspectives from Industry and Treatment
RGT has published a review of the academic evidence regarding self-exclusion as well as surveying perspectives from industry and treatment providers. The survey was conducted by the Self-Exclusion Group of the Responsible Gambling Strategy Board and RGT and asked them how effective self-exclusion has been as a form of harm minimisation in gambling. It found that the majority of respondents from gambling businesses and treatment providers believed the industry needs to ensure self-exclusion is irrevocable within the agreed period, improve information sharing between gambling operators, improve the standard of training for staff, and ban marketing to problem gamblers who have excluded themselves.
Self-Exclusion as a Gambling Harm Minimisation Measure in Great Britain: An Overview of the Academic Evidence and Perspectives from Industry and Treatment

Operator-based Approaches to Harm Minimisation in Gambling: summary, review and future directions
RGT has published a review which highlights the need for gambling operators to engage players with responsible and problem gambling guidance, offer self-exclusion mechanisms which are quick and simple to implement, and to ensure that staff members are properly trained. The report was led by Professor Alex Blaszczynski of the University of Sydney and reviews the nature and effectiveness of harm minimisation in gambling and proposes areas where further understanding should be developed to enable effective harm minimisation measures to be introduced.
Operator-based Approaches to Harm Minimisation in Gambling

Gambling-related advertising
RGT has published a report reviewing the international research on gambling-related advertising. The report by Dr Per Binde of the University of Gothenburg pays particular attention to studies that concern the impact of such advertising on participation in gambling and the prevalence of problem gambling. A key aim of the report is to provide useful recommendations about the potential of research approaches in producing reliable and meaningful results.
Gambling advertising: a critical research review

The bibliography has been updated: Gambling advertising: a critical research review - Bibliography update

Gaming machines research (Stage 1)
In December 2013, RGT published the report of the first stage of its research programme into gaming machines in Great Britain. NatCen, a leading social research institute, was commissioned to scope industry data held by 13 industry operators representing 80% of the highest stakes and prizes gaming machines market and to explore its usefulness for future research.
Scoping the use of industry data on Category B gaming machines

The report was a first stage of an ongoing independent research programme commissioned by the RGT in order to better understand how people behave when playing on those gaming machines offering the highest stakes and prizes, and what helps people to stay in control and play responsibly.

Gaming machines research (Stage 2)
Following input by the Government, the Gambling Commission and the Responsible Gambling Strategy Board the second stage of research into gaming machines has been expanded in recognition of growing concern about gaming machines in Licensed Betting Offices (LBOs) and to ensure that RGT meets its original aim of commissioning independent research that will provide substantive knowledge to better describe, understand, identify and mitigate gambling-related harm in relation to gaming machines by autumn 2014.
Details of the second stage of the research programme

Consumer behaviour in relation to gaming machines
Also, RGT commissioned a number of socio-economic reviews of consumer behaviour to inform its gaming machine research programme and the first five were published in December 2013 in a special issue of the Journal of Gambling Business and Economics, which is available via the following link:
Journal of Gambling Business and Economics, Volume 7 Number 3 2013

Examining machine player behaviour: a qualitative exploration
NatCen was previously commissioned by the Responsible Gambling Fund (RGF) to examine machine player behaviour, which the RGT published in December 2013 and will inform the future program of gaming machine research:
Examining machine player behaviour: a qualitative exploration

GambleAware-funded PhD's
British older adult gambling behaviour; evaluating psychological and physical health as predictive risk for problem gambling
A study on cognitive biases in gambling: Hot hand and gamblers' fallacy
A longitudinal study mapping changes in explicit and implicit measures of gambling behaviour
Routes in and out of problem internet gambling by gender and by gambling activity: A mixed-method study based on personal accounts of internet gamblers
The psychosocial impact of online problem gambling
Barriers to treatment access for young problem gamblers
An explorative investigation of the effects of information technology on gambling and gambling-related behaviours
The neuropsychology of self-control and risk-taking: A focus on impulsive behaviour
Children and gambling: Attitudes, behaviour, harm prevention and regulatory responses
Learning under uncertainty: A model-based approach for understanding gambling behaviour
Wheels and tiles: Maintaining social connections through mah-jong and roulette gambling in Manchester